In many practical scenarios, image encryption has to be conducted prior to image compression. This has led to the problem of how to design a pair of image encryption and compression algorithms such that compressing the encrypted images can still be efficiently performed. In this paper, we design a highly efficient image encryption-then-compression (ETC) system, where both lossless and lossy compression are considered. The proposed image encryption scheme operated in the prediction error domain is shown to be able to provide a reasonably high level of security. We also demonstrate that an arithmetic coding-based approach can be exploited to efficiently compress the encrypted images. More notably, the proposed compression approach applied to encrypted images is only slightly worse, in terms of compression efficiency, than the state-of-the-art lossless/lossy image coders, which take original, unencrypted images as inputs. In contrast, most of the existing ETC solutions induce significant penalty on the compression efficiency.
Modern scientific and web databases maintain large and heterogeneous data. These real-world database schemas contain over hundreds or even thousands of attributes and relations. Traditional predefined query forms are not able to satisfy various ad-hoc queries from users. This paper proposes DQF, a novel database query form interface, which is able to dynamically generate query forms. The essence of DQF is to capture the user’s preference and rank query form components. The generation of the query form is an iterative process and is guided by the user. At each iteration, the system automatically generates ranking lists of form components and the user then adds the desired form components into the query form. The ranking of form components is based on the captured user preference. The user can also fill the query form and submit queries to view the query result at each iteration. In this way, the query form could be dynamically refined until the user satisfies with the query results. We propose a metric for measuring the goodness of a query form. A probabilistic model is developed for estimating the goodness of a query form in DQF. Our experimental evaluation and user study demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the system..
This paper proposes LARS*, a location-aware recommender system that uses location-based ratings to produce recommendations. Traditional recommender systems do not consider spatial properties of users nor items; LARS*, on the other hand, supports a taxonomy of three novel classes of location-based ratings, namely, spatial ratings for non-spatial items, non-spatial ratings for spatial items, and spatial ratings for spatial items. LARS* exploits user rating locations through user partitioning, a technique that influences recommendations with ratings spatially close to querying users in a manner that maximizes system scalability while not sacrificing recommendation quality. LARS* exploits item locations using travel penalty, a technique that favors recommendation candidates closer in travel distance to querying users in a way that avoids exhaustive access to all spatial items. LARS* can apply these techniques separately, or together, depending on the type of location-based rating available. Experimental evidence using large-scale real-world data from both the Foursquare location-based social network and the Movie Lens movie recommendation system reveals that LARS* is efficient, scalable, and capable of producing recommendations twice as accurate compared to existing recommendation approaches.
Shortest distance query is a fundamental operation in large-scale networks. Many existing methods in the literature take a landmark embedding approach, which selects a set of graph nodes as landmarks and computes the shortest distances from each landmark to all nodes as an embedding. To answer a shortest distance query, the pre computed distances from the landmarks to the two query nodes are used to compute an approximate shortest distance based on the triangle inequality. In this paper, we analyze the factors that affect the accuracy of distance estimation in landmark embedding. In particular, we find that a globally selected, query-independent landmark set may introduce a large relative error, especially for nearby query nodes. To address this issue, we propose a query-dependent local landmark scheme, which identifies a local landmark close to both query nodes and provides more accurate distance estimation than the traditional global landmark approach. We propose efficient local landmark indexing and retrieval techniques, which achieve low offline indexing complexity and online query complexity. Two optimization techniques on graph compression and graph online search are also proposed, with the goal of further reducing index size and improving query accuracy. Furthermore, the challenge of immense graphs whose index may not fit in the memory leads us to store the embedding in relational database, so that a query of the local landmark scheme can be expressed with relational operators. Effective indexing and query optimization mechanisms are designed in this context. Our experimental results on large-scale social networks and road networks demonstrate that the local landmark scheme reduces the shortest distance estimation
Personalized web search (PWS) has demonstrated its effectiveness in improving the quality of various search services on the Internet. However, evidences show that users' reluctance to disclose their private information during search has become a major barrier for the wide proliferation of PWS. We study privacy protection in PWS applications that model user preferences as hierarchical user profiles. We propose a PWS framework called UPS that can adaptively generalize profiles by queries while respecting user-specified privacy requirements. Our runtime generalization aims at striking a balance between two predictive metrics that evaluate the utility of personalization and the privacy risk of exposing the generalized profile. We present two greedy algorithms, namely Greedy DP and Greedy IL, for runtime generalization. We also provide an online prediction mechanism for deciding whether personalizing a query is beneficial. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework. The experimental results also reveal that Greedy IL significantly outperforms Greedy DP in terms of efficiency.