An abstract is the summary text written after the study has been completed and usually written after you complete the whole paper. Further abstract provide an overview of full text published in a journal (Chan & Foo, 2001). Further during selection process, technical committee largely depends on the abstract to quality of the paper. Since abstract previews the journal paper, it has to be written with full considerations in mind. There are two types of abstract in general i.e., the structured abstract and the conventional abstract. Later focus on paragraph and while former put information into different paragraphs (aim of the study, methods and results) (Hartley, 1998). Below table shows different combinations of abstract. The implications of the findings are also optional in the abstract.
|Combination 1||Combination 2||Combination 3||Language features|
|Purpose||Purpose + Method||Purpose||Past/ Present perfect tense|
|Method||Purpose + Method||Method||Past tense|
|Conclusion||Conclusion||Conclusion||Present tense/ Modal verbs|
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